I think I just found a conflict with another plugin, WP Real Media Library.
TypeError: this.$input.data(...).map is not a function media.js:129:51 initialize http://localhost/wp/wp-content/plugins/meta-box/js/media.js:129 Backbone 2 initMediaField http://localhost/wp/wp-content/plugins/meta-box/js/media.js:546 jQuery 2 <anonymous> http://localhost/wp/wp-content/plugins/meta-box/js/media.js:552 jQuery 4
and after that, a warning:
Source map error: request failed with status 404 Resource URL: http://localhost/wp/wp-content/plugins/real-media-library/public/lib/es7-shim/dist/es7-shim.min.js Source Map URL: dist/es7-shim.map
When I disable WP Real Media Library, everything works as expected.